Archive | May, 2011

Why Are Commercials Banned?

Posted on 30 May 2011 by Averee Burman

There are many advertisements which  that appeal to our senses. So we treasure their memories-  as a source of humour or knowledge. Some advertisements touch us deeply. They strike an instant emotional connect.  The advertisements then are of some functional value to us.

However, every rose has its thorn. Certain advertisements made in bad taste are however banned. They are censored so strictly that the public are even unaware of their existence. It is that strict step by the government to rule out the existence of any advertisement that might be violating all credos and ethos of ethical  promotion of a concept or a product.

Marketers can go to any extremes to sell their products. They have no scruples. Ethics nearly plays no role in their conscience. They are so highly profit driven in this competitive  market, that even if they do know that the product they might sell might cause harm  to the consumer, they still will not pay heed to their inner voice of societal  reasoning.

In this regard, we can even say that the consumers themselves indulge in  negligent behavior. At this juncture thus the government tries to step in to balance the buying and selling of services or products that might demean social and individual welfare.

In banning advertisements, there are 3 main reasons-

  • Deceptive advertising
  • Advertising to children
  • Telemarketing fraud

Deceptive advertising is the one which is potentially misleading or literally false is deceptive.

Potentially misleading ads are difficult to evaluate because miscomprehension may often occur. Miscomprehension is a problem for firms because the audience does not understand the message being delivered. The FTC regulates deceptive advertising, but not miscomprehension.

Both policy makers and marketing managers have reacted to criticism of advertising directed at children.

Some countries have banned advertising to children under 12.  The elderly are vulnerable to fraud by telemarketers.  A program to combat this fraud is the Know Fraud Program.  Organizations that fight telemarketing fraud are the AARP, the FBI, the  Post Office, and others.

Negligent behavior is composed of actions and inactions that may negatively affect the long-term quality of life of individuals and society.

This type of behavior can occur in two different contexts:

  • Product Misuse
  • Consumption of Hazardous Products

Many injuries result  from misuse of a safe  product – not from product defects.Using a cell phone while driving is being outlawed in some areas.

Between 1988 and 1998 alcohol related accidents have declined. The methods used to increase consumer awareness are:

  • Informing and Education
  • Social Controls
  • Economic Incentives
  • Economic Disincentives

Some products are hazardous and consumption can become compulsive or addictive over time.

Other behaviors are not harmful in moderation but become addictive when they become compulsive.

  • Smoking
  • Compulsive Drinking
  • Gambling
  • Compulsive Shopping
  • Other Compulsions

Consumers until the late 1960 s were exposed to nearly 3000 cigarette commercials per week of 38 different brands. In 1950 there was already concern over the health hazards of cigarette smoking.  Smoking declined from the 1960 s to 1992 but has held steady since then. As mentioned earlier, there has been a decline in alcohol-related deaths on the road. This suggests a decline in alcohol consumption.  Despite the decrease in sales of hard liquor, there is an increase in alcoholic soft drinks.  These taste like colas or fruit juices but may contain more alcohol than beer does. Gambling affects an estimated 8 to 12 million people. Gambling takes place in casinos in Las Vegas,  New Jersey, on river boats and elsewhere.  State-run lotteries make it easy to gamble by visiting a convenience store. Some consumers “shop till they drop” because shopping can become an addiction similar to alcohol or drugs. There are drugs available to help relieve this compulsion.  Compulsive shopping may be hereditary.

Many ads for instance Nike or even Pepsi etc for their sweatshop or child labour allegations had been banned worldwide.  Ads which cross the limits of vulgarity like the Axe ads mostly have been banned. The main idea is not to distort the notion of attraction and not to demean women. Lastly most ads have been banned because of aggravating the culture sensitive notions of the consumers or even belying the tender age of the youngsters. The Amul Macho ads show the Indian women in bad light. The alcohol ads have been totally banned and yet many companies resort to surrogate marketing that sometimes backfire because they are made in bad taste. Even a couple of  ads of  Fair And Lovely- which destroyed the perception of beauty were banned by the government. And rightly so since the Indian consumers had to wake up to the reality of the beauty of their dark skins.

The parameters of acceptance have changed today with the mindset becoming more flexible and adapting to the changing times.  Thus there are new avenues to explore for the ad-makers of the world such that  no boundaries- cultural, emotional, or physical – are transgressed.

A new idea these days are for firms to come up with their corporate social responsibility towards the citizens of their land.

“Corporate social responsibility” refers to the idea that firms have an obligation to help the larger society by offering some of their resources.

This position would permit expenditures in support of socially responsible activities and provide future benefits in the form of consumer approval and loyalty.

One way of showing that companies are socially responsible is by creating a positive public image.

Another way that firms can show they are socially responsible is by making speedy product recalls. Behind this CSR drive remains the key is only to get  returns on investment.

Thus both consumers and the marketers can flirt with the boundaries of acceptance as much as they can push it. But in doing so, they must keep the larger picture in mind. The moment they cross the line- their efforts in creativity aka the commercials get banned. The government puts its foot down.

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From The Independence Period To The Present – Of Using Media Space To Advocate Social Change

Posted on 23 May 2011 by Aakanksha Shahi

Indian media scene has witnessed spectacular growth. With this newfound energy and excitement, media has also explored a whole new dimension of its power. And this realization has dawned not just due to technological advances but through some recent initiatives taken by them as the fourth estate of our democracy.

Moreover, this realization was not a moment of enlightenment rather a gradual process. However, it is to be noted that this power is inherent in media. Media has always had the power to influence, impact, propagate and mobilize. It won’t be wrong to say that media in India, at least, was started with this idea of media as a tool for social change.

This power of media to bring about a social change or transformation is called as media activism.

Social Responsibility Theory of Press

  • This Theory proposed by Siebert, Peterson & Schramm in 1956, emphasized the need for an independent press that scrutinizes other social institutions and provides objective, accurate news reports.
  • It said that media should promote cultural pluralism-by becoming the voice of all the people-not just the elite group or groups that had dominated national, regional or local culture in the past.
  • This theory was initially practiced in United States of America in the 20th century and is characterized by private media ownership. The social responsibility theory is an outgrowth of the libertarian theory. However, social responsibility goes beyond “objective” reporting to “interpretive” reporting. It is the press, therefore, that must be the “more alert element” and keep the public informed, for an informed populace is the cornerstone of democracy.
  • The Canons of Journalism, adopted by the American Society of Newspaper Editors also addresses these same obligations when it calls on newspapers to practice responsibility to the general welfare, sincerity, truthfulness, impartiality, fair play, decency, and respect for the individual’s privacy.

History of media activism in India

  • It was during our freedom struggle, when our leaders felt need to firstly, inform and educate the masses and then mobilize them to fight against the injustice they were being subjected to, that indigenous newspapers, radio stations came into existence. Most of the radio stations, which lasted for a brief period of time, were operated secretly. Pamphlets and street plays formed important tools of social communication as well.
  • For example, the object of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the social reformer in setting up a newspaper was ‘to lay before the public such articles of intelligence as may increase their experience, and tend to their social improvement’, and to ‘indicate to the rulers a knowledge of the real situation of their subjects, and to make the subjects acquainted with the established laws and custom of their rulers’.
  • Also, Lokamaya Tilak’s newspaper Kesari and Mahatma Gandhi’s Harijan are examples of media that were revolutionary in their approach and changed Indian mindsets on relevant, important social issues. Thus, media was a significant element during the pre-independence era and worked relentlessly to expose the brutality of the regime and awaken the masses to their rights and power.
  • After independence, media remained active for a few years. The introduction of television gave rise to broadcast news, which was faster and more impactful. Programs like krishi darshan and aamchi maati, aamchi mansa aimed at disseminating useful information to the farmers to improve their produce. Also, the then government control broadcast industry featured news bulletins at prime times and at regular intervals on the
  • All India Radio (AIR). Although there were a few programs of entertainment, the media during this time was largely used to improve to the India’s social-economic-political condition by empowering the masses with relevant knowledge. Thus, the media once again was summoned as a powerful medium of social transformation.

Scenario Post – 1991: India

  • After liberalization in 1991, the Indian media industry welcomed foreign partnership and then emerged private channels and many more newspapers. From here on, the Indian media scenario has been chaotic and vibrant, expanding and impacting.
  • In this scenario, the media apparently altered its agenda and social change and responsible journalism was now, limited to a handful of media. Indian Express has for long retained its value of serious, relevant journalism.
  • Magazines like Dharamyug, Illustrated Weekly of India were famous for their courage to raise social issues and question the authorities on misgovernance and misplaced priorities. However, by large, the media ignored its role as social change catalyst.
  • With the new millennium came in more private 24-hour news channels and niche newspapers and magazines. Once again, the media realized its power and took it as its responsibility to take up matters of public concern and in larger, public good.

Activism of elitism?

  • However, many critics argue that such media activism is highly skewed and inclined towards the elite. It is only the urban cases which are pursued by the media while the majority of the rural problems are ignored and remain unaddressed. Along with this ignorance, media turns a blind eye towards people and issues incompatible with popular notions and ideas.
  • Indian national media as being highly ‘brahminised’ and supports his argument by citing glaring ideological hypocrisy and disparate in coverage of some recent, important news events. “The elitist middle class who thronged with candles for Jessica and Priyadarshini Matto did not come out of their houses in support of the parents and relatives whose sons and daughters were brutally murdered in a real life psycho thriller case of Nithari serial killings… Nithari appeared as cover story with a sensational element of a thriller, but it never attained the dimension of a campaign

In conclusion, a democratic contour is absolutely necessary for media to be fair and balanced such that the fruits of its activism be shared equally by everyone in the society. For that however, periodic assessment and in-depth analysis of the nature and motives of such media activism is necessary.

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Internship Opportunity For Content Writers

Posted on 19 May 2011 by BMMBoxer

Organization Name:

Role Title: Travel Writer

Compensation: This is an Unpaid Internship for 2 months (Work From Home/Hostel)

Role Description And Responsibilities:
  1. Writing and composing travel related reviews of cities, and places based on their personal experiences & visits
  2. Research-based travel writing about best hotels, resorts, shopping destinations, market places and other site seeing options in different cities, and countries.
  3. A flair for writing with an understanding of what works on the Internet.
  4. Ability to work in a team with good communication skills.
  5. An effective writing style that is fresh, consistent, and customer friendly.
  6. A knack for editing and proof reading with good research
  7. Ability to write in a variety of formats and styles for multiple audiences.
  8. An understanding of keywords and meta tags – Ability to write web
  9. Page titles, meta tag descriptions, alt tags for images.
  10. Meeting deadlines
Education Requirements: A graduate with a good command over the English language.
Experience Requirements: Experience with a publishing house can be an added advantage, but not necessary

Interested candidates can send their resumes at with subject line ‘Content Writer –’. Specimen attachments welcomed.

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Admission to BMM @ St. Xavier’s

Posted on 19 May 2011 by BMMBoxer

Admission to BMM @ St. Xavier’s

Basis of Admission

a.    The admission to the BMM degree courses will be via an Admission system which consists of an entrance exam (60%), marks obtained in the Std. XII Exam (qualifying exam – QE) (20%) and an interview (20%).

The entrance exam will be held On June 7th 2011 14.00 hrs to 16.00 hrs (IST)

The Schedule will remain unaltered even if the above date is declared as a Public Holiday.

b.  Type of Exam

There will be one question paper of two hours duration.  The Question paper will consist of:- 2 Sections made up of objective and subjective type questions. It will consist of questions on General Knowledge, Current Affairs, Data Interpretation, English Language Skills and Critical Analysis & Creative Thinking.

c. Language of Question Paper

The question paper will be in the English Language and candidates are required to answer in English.

d.    Examination Centre

The BMM 2011 Entrance exams will be conducted at the St. Xavier’s College, Mahapalika Marg, Mumbai 400 001

e.    Calculating and Communication Aids are not permitted:

The use of electronic devices like mobile phones, calculators, ipods, etc. and Material like log tables, books, notebooks, loose papers, etc. are not permitted and shall not be brought into the examination hall.

2)    Eligibility for BMM 2011

a.    Candidates must make sure that they satisfy all the eligibility conditions given below for appearing for the BMM 2011 Entrance Exams.  Candidates belonging to the General Category (GC) whose date of birth falls on or after 1st June 1988 are eligible to appear for the Entrance Exams BMM 2011.  Candidates belonging to the catholic religious community and SCST candidates who are born on or after 1st June 1986 are eligible to appear for the Entrance Exams BMM 2011.

b.    The date of birth as recorded in the School Leaving Certificate, First Board  Pre-University Certificate  Birth Certificate issued by a Competent Authority will be accepted. In case of minority candidates the Baptism Certificate will be necessary.

c.    Year of passing Qualifying Examination (QE): A candidate must have passed a QE or will be appearing for the same in 2011.  Those who will be appearing in the QE later than July 31st, 2011 are not eligible to apply for BMM 2011.

d.    The Qualifying Examinations (QEs) are listed below:

i.    The final examination of the 10 + 2 system conducted by any recognised Central  State Board, including the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Mumbai, Pune, etc., Central Board of Secondary Education, (C.B.S.E.) New Delhi, Council for the Indian School Certification Examination, (I.S.C.) New Delhi.

ii.    Intermediate or 2 year pre-university examination conducted by a recognised Board  University.

iii.    High School Certificate Examination of the Cambridge University or International Baccalaureate Diploma of the International Baccalaureate Office, Geneva.

iv.    Senior Secondary School Examination conducted by the National Institute of Open Schooling with a minimum of 5 subjects.

(Note : In case the candidate has passed the qualifying examination from a Board or Pre-University other than the Maharashtra State Board then the candidate will be required to apply for a provisional eligibility certificate issued by the University of Mumbai through the College at the time of admission.  The duly filled in application form available at the College Office should be submitted with an attested copy of the class XII marksheet along with the prescribed fees to the college office when admission is offered).

e.    Minimum Percentage of marks in QE

i.    Candidates belonging to the GC, must secure at least 60% marks in aggregate in their QE.

ii.    Candidates from the Minority Community must secure at least 55% in the QE.

iii.    SC/ST candidates must secure at least 50% marks in their QE.

f.    Reservation of Seats

i.    Minority – 35% – 21 Seats

ii.    Management – 15% – 9 Seats

iii.    Special Category – 3% – 2 Seats

iv.    General – 23.5% – 14 Seats

v.    Reserved Category:

  • SC – 4 Seats
  • ST – 2 Seats
  • DT/NT – 3 Seats
  • OBC/SBC – 5 Seats

3)    Mode of Application for BMM 2011

a.    Candidates can apply on-line by logging on to St. Xavier’s College website: The site has been designed in a user friendly way to help candidates apply online in a step by step fashion. The On-line application portal will be open from 8.00 hrs (IST) on 1st May 2011 to 17 hrs (IST) on 1st June 2011

b.    The fee for the on-line application for an ST/SC candidate is Rs. 150- and Rs. 450- for all other candidates.

c.    Candidates can make payment online through Credit/Debit Cards of Nationalised or other banks as listed on the website.  Candidates can also opt to make payment by Demand Draft drawn on a Nationalised Bank in favour of ‘Principal, St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai’ and forward it by Speed Post addressed to the Registrar of the College so as to reach the College before 3rd June 2011.  A Demand Draft received after 3rd June 2011 will not be accepted and the application will not be considered.

d.    The College will not be responsible for any postal delay or irregularity or loss during postal transit.

4)    Instructions for applying online

•    Log on to

•    Follow the instructions given on the website carefully for filling the online application form

•    Once a payment has been received the candidate will receive an email to confirm and will be able to download and print an Admit Card for the Entrance Test.

•    The Candidate will need to affix a recent passport size photograph and get it attested by their school/College Principal or a Gazetted Officer and carry it to the Examination Hall.

5)    The Last date for receipt of the completed application form:

a.    The Last date for receipt of duly completed online application forms is 17.00 hrs on 1st June 2011.

b.    Any application received after this date will not be accepted.

c.    The Office of St. Xavier’s College is not responsible for any postal delay or irregularities or loss during postal transit.

d.    No acknowledgement card will be sent

6)    Admit Cards

a.    The college will issue an online Admit Card which needs to be printed out and brought to the Examination Hall after attestation of their photograph.

b.    If the Admit Card is not received by 3rd June 2011, the candidate can approach the Registrar of the College and upon satisfaction of having complied with all requirements, can obtain an Admit Card on or before 6th June 2011, 4.30 p.m. IST from the office of the College.

7)    Result of BMM 2011 Entrance Test

Candidates will get to know their Entrance Exam Rank (EER) through our website on 15th June, 2011.

8) Those candidates that had not submitted their Class XII Marksheets along with their admission forms are required to submit attested copies of the same within 3 days of the declaration of the HSC results in Mumbai.

9)    Interview:

There will be an interview for short listed candidates for ascertaining the aptitude of the candidate for the Course on a date to be announced after the declaration of the HSC results of the Maharashtra State Board (Mumbai).

10)    Over all Rank (OR)

Based on the performance of the candidate in the Entrance Exam, the interview and on the marks obtained in the Qualifying Exam, a weighted score will be given to each candidate and the overall rank of all candidates category-wise will be displayed on the website on a date that will be announced.

11)    Admission:

a.    Candidates shall be admitted strictly on merit, merit being judged by their category rank.

b.    Candidates who accept the offer of admission shall pay the necessary fees.

c.    Fees once paid will not be refunded (for fee structure please see the website)

Courtesy :

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Jargon used in Journalism

Posted on 18 May 2011 by Natasha Tulyani

Certain terms are used in everyday Journalism language. In this article, we list those for you so that when your boss or colleague throws journalism jargon at you, you are not dumbfounded!

1. ABC –  AUDIT BUREAU OF CIRCULATION: There are increasing number of advertisements in newspapers now-a-days. If you are an advertiser you will want your ad to come in the most popular newspaper, one that sells a large number of copies. Because of this some publications lie about their sales to impress the advertisers. Thus, ABC has the responsibility to check the audited circulation number of newspapers and magazines all around India.

2. BY LINE: In the end or beginning of every story the name of the journalist who has written that particular story is mentioned. In the by line, credit is also given to the reporter in the field or if any special / freelance correspondent is involved.

3. CREDIT LINE: Many times with the news article there are pictures attached. Example: when the article is about a minister his picture is printed along with the article or if the news is about garbage at a place then as proof the relevant picture is attached. The credit line will tell you the name of the photographer who has clicked the picture. When graphs are used in articles, the credit line mentions the name of the maker of the graph.

4. CAPTION: Below the photograph there is always a description about the picture or the graph. That statement called  caption.

5. BANNER: Banner is the name given to the headline of the main story on the first page.

6. BINDER: Binder is the headline that is spread across the entire page but not the first page. Mostly it is of the story printed on the second or fourth page.

7. BEAT: aA newspaper has various sections. These sections are called ‘beats’. Example : crime beat, political beat, sports beat etc.

8. BOILED DOWN: It is the summarizing or reducing of the size of the article to meet specific proportions. The person who designs the pages of the paper assigns a certain proportion to every news story.

9. CLEAN COPY: It is the final, edited copy that is ready for publication. It is a copy without errors and is thus called the clean copy.

10. COPY DESK: The place where editor edits the copy is called the copy desk. It is on the copy desk that the headline is finalized and placed.

11. DUMMY:  Dummy is a drawing or designing of the structure of a newspaper. It assigns size and space of advertisements and other news stories.

12. EXCLUSIVE/SCOOP: It is a story that no other newspaper has for that day. Example: sting operations, a research story, etc.

13. FILLER: They are not very necessary news items. They are used to fill spaces in the newspaper. Thus these news items are small in size.

14. LEAD: It is the main paragraph of a story. In this paragraph, the answers to 5Ws and 1H is given. It is the most important paragraph in terms of the details it gives.

15. IMPRINT LINE: It is a statement on the editorial page. It states the details of the newspapers ownership, place of publication, PNI number and editor details. This helps trace the paper. If any one feels that his feelings are insulted in the given news he can file a case against the paper or editor.

16. MORGUE: This is where all the important old news are stored. It is also called the news library.

17. MUST: If this word is used in an article it means that article must be published in the next day’s newspaper.

18. STRINGER: He is a reporter who is not on a regular pay role. Whenever his article is used, he is paid for it.

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Shots, Camera View Points, Camera Movements

Posted on 09 May 2011 by Aakanksha Shahi

Shot:A shot is the basic unit of a film and refers to one length of continuous (unedited) action.In film, a shot is a continuous strip of motion picture film, created of a series of frames, that runs for an uninterrupted period of time.

Shots in relation to distance:

  • Extreme Wide/ Long Shot (EWS) In the extreme wide shot, the view is so far from the subject isn’t even visible. The point of this shot is to show the subject’s surroundings designed to show the audience where the action is taking place.
  • Long shot A long shot (sometimes referred to as a full shot or a wide shot) typically shows the entire object or human figure and is usually intended to place it in some relation to its surroundings; however, it is not as far away as an extreme long shot would be.
  • Medium shot A medium shot is a camera shot from a medium distance. a shot of the person from the knees up or the waist up is a close-up shot.

  • Establishing shot An establishing shot sets up, or “establishes”, a scene’s setting and/or its participants. Typically it is a shot at the beginning (or, occasionally, end) of a scene indicating where, and sometimes when, the remainder of the scene takes place.

Or an establishing shot might just be a long shot of a room that shows all the characters from a particular scene. For example, a scene about a murder in a college lecture hall might begin with a shot that shows the entire room — including the lecturing professor and the students taking notes.

  • Close-up shot A close-up tightly frames a person or object. The most common close-ups are ones of actors’ faces. They are also used extensively in stills photography.

Major characters are often given a close-up when they are introduced as a way of indicating their importance. Leading characters will have multiple close-ups.

Types of close-up: There are various degrees of close-up depending on how zoomed in the shot is.

o   Medium Close Up: Half-way between a mid shot and a close-up. Usually cover’s the subject’s head and shoulders.

o   Close Up: A certain feature, such as someone’s head, takes up the whole frame.

o   Extreme Close Up : The shot is so tight that only a fraction of the focus of attention, such as someone’s eyes, can be seen

Camera movement

Film is a spacio-temporal art form. Other forms are not spacio-temporal because they do not use space and time at the same time or simultaneously. We can create enthusiasm in an otherwise static shot simply by moving the camera. Some basic shots are: Panning, Tilt, Dolly, Track, Arc and Zoom.

  • Panning A pan is a horizontal camera movement in which the camera moves left and right about a central axis. Pan shots are used to show the viewer more of the scenery. This technique is also often used to show views from high places, such as overlooks.
  • Tilting A tilt done with a mounted camera is quite simple. We just move the camera up or down, without lowering or raising the position of the camera. This is must like panning, only it is done vertically. This video camera technique is used to follow the subject that you are photographing, or to show the viewer a large object from top of bottom – or from bottom to top.
  • Dolly Dollying refers to moving the camera forward or backward in a scene. Although, at first glance, dollying may seem similar to zooming, the two are different in terms of how and why you use them. You dolly by moving the camera, whereas you zoom in and out by adjusting the lens.

We can make our own dolly with a wheelchair, a scooter, a skateboard, a rolling cart, or many other devices that have wheels. This camera movement technique is used to follow your subject. The use of a dolly opens up many possibilities, especially when used in conjunction with other techniques. It helps us to roll backwards as well as forward.

  • Track When the camera is mounted on a cart which travels along tracks for a very smooth movement, it is known as a tracking shot.

A track is a lateral, sideways, travel shot, with the entire camera and tripod being moved right or left. The track shot differs from a pan; in that, the depth of field in a track shot is maintained as the whole unit, the tripod and camera – moves past the objects.

  • Zoom All camcorders are equipped with a zoom lens with a servo button marked T (for tight) and W (for wide). Zooming in and out changes the focal length and, therefore the size of the image with varying speeds while the camera is stationary. Be careful not to zoom too quickly on your subjects and use sparingly.

Camera viewpoint

  • Angles Although the term angle is often used on the set to designate simple camera position, it also has a more limited meaning in terms of camera resources, that is, the height and orientation, or level, of the camera in relationship to the subject.

  • Low-angle shot A low-angle shot is one in which the camera is below the subject, angled upward. It has a tendency to make characters or environments look threatening, powerful or intimidating. The low angle shot can also give a distorted perspective, showing a world out of balance. This can produce a sense of both disorientation and foreboding.
  • High-angle shot The high-angle shot is obviously the opposite of low-angle, and its effects are the opposite as well. The camera is placed above the subject, pointing down. It tends to diminish a subject, making it look intimidated or threatened. This is the conventional way of making characters look insignificant.
  • Eye-level shot Eye-level shots are those taken with camera on or near the eye-level of the character or subject being filmed. Eye-level shots tend to be neutral. Much like the medium shot, an eye-level shot puts the viewer on equal footing with the subject being filmed. It has none of the diminishing or exaggerating qualities of the high and low-angle shots.
  • Bird’s-eye view The bird’s-eye view, also called an overhead shot, is actually a variation of the high-angle shot but is so extreme that it has an effect all its own. This shot is from directly above and tends to have a God-like, omniscient point of view; people look ant-like and insignificant. It is used for dramatic effects or for showing a different spatial perspective. It enable the audience to see things which the characters cannot.

  • Oblique shot In an oblique shot, also called the Dutch angle, the camera is tilted laterally on a tripod so it is no longer parallel with the horizon. The oblique shot takes the straight lines of the world and presents them as diagonals. It is generally used to give an overwhelming sense of the world being unbalanced or out of kilter. This angle is used for dramatic effects & helps portray unease, disorientation, frantic or desperate action, intoxication, madness etc.
  • Point-of-view shotA Point-of -view shot represents the perception or viewpoint of a specific character. It is not used as frequently as one might at first presume, primarily because camera vision and human vision are decidedly not the same.

There are two types of point-of-view shots: Subjective and objective.

When the camera assumes the position of one of the characters in the story, and we see the whole story from his/her perspective, it is a subjective shot.

When the camera assumes the position of a third person watching the scene unfold, it is an objective.

A POV shot need not be the strict point-of-view of an actual single character in a film. Sometimes the point-of-view shot is taken over the shoulder of the character (third person), who remains visible on the screen.

  • Bottom angle Views the object from the bottom side.
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Content-Writing Internship Form Output

Posted on 01 May 2011 by BMMBoxer

Scroll right via scroll bar below in case you can’t see complete row.

Can’t scroll properly or see completely, check out here

Want to add another topic? Go here now

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