Semester 6

Posted on 28 January 2010 by BMMBoxer

T.Y.B.M.M. JOURNALISM semester VI

1. PRESS LAWS AND ETHICS

  • Introduction to Law
    • Constitutional law
    • Statutory law
    • Judgment law
    • Substantial and adjectival law
  • The Press as the forth estate
  • The role of law in regulating journalism-the debate of a libertarian and socially responsible press.
  • Need for an autonomous regulatory body
    • Press Council of India – the rationale and vision behind the establishment of the PCI
    • Its structure, functions, history
    • Powers – the debate over punitive powers
    • Dual role in ensuring freedom of the press and regulating it
    • PCI code of conduct for journalists
    • Major cases handled by the PCI
    • Pertinent research reports of the PCI for example on monopoly etc.
  • Laws related to freedom of the Press – 19 (1) (a), ‘reasonable restrictions’ 19 (2) and other constraints:
    • Defamation
    • Public order
    • Contempt of court
    • Contempt of parliament
    • Sedition
    • Obscenity, indecent representation of women act
  • Laws related to information access
    • Right to information
    • Examining the right to know vs. the right to privacy
  • Censorship-the Press during the Emergency and Publication of Objectionable Matters Act.
  • Indirect means of censorship Press and Page Act; targeting the Press through the tax laws and other laws, Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act.
  • Official Secrets Act
  • Indian Evidence Act – real, oral, documentary, primary and secondary evidence
  • Confidentiality of sources – the absence of a shield law in India; discussion of the American law
  • Laws related to journalism as a business
    • Working journalists act
    • Press and registration of books act
  • Copyright
  • Ethics
    • Examining the differences between ethics, morals and code of conduct
    • Institutional PR ethics; practitioner and personal ethics
    • Search for standards – guiding principles, situational ethics
  • Issue of balance on reporting Crime, Disasters, Conflict, – communal riots or other violence
  • Advertiser influence
  • Objectivity
  • Conflict of interest
  • Ownership
  • Frankery and fabricating news
  • Deception, misrepresentation
  • Using shock value in visuals and language
  • Seduction-Freebies, perks, travel and stay accommodations
  • Ethics in Investigative Journalism
    • Checkbook journalism
    • Confidentiality of sources
    • Issues of consent, using ‘off the record’ material
    • Repercussions of the story on sources’ lives and on the publication itself

2. NICHE JOURNALISM

  • Financial Journalism
    • Basic knowledge of the finance system in India; gathering, distribution and allocation of revenue vis-à-vis the central and state governments; finance and planning commission
    • Central and state budgets; budget-making exercise, how to read a budget, concept of zero-budget, importance of public accounts committee
    • Introduction to tax laws, FERA, Industrial Relations Acts, Companies act
    • Sources of news of business, finance and industry governments, chambers of commerce and industries, corporate, trading and industrial executives, share markets, commodities markets, money market
    • Analysis of decisions, company reports and statements, AGMs
    • Satellite network and new trends in business journalism; new information technology; commercial database, ethics in business reporting, business journalism, servant or watchdog; concept of social audit
    • Introduction to major industries, electronics heavy engineering, chemical, steel, cement, power, bio-technology, agro-industries, service and agriculture; their role in the economy
    • Covering stock markets, commodity markets, company meetings, industrial production, exports, imports, financial companies, foreign capital investment, investigating the innumerable tie-up agreements with foreign countries, poor infrastructure development bureaucracy and business tie ups
  • Environment
    • Print and broadcast media dealing with the issue
    • How environment is covered in the mainstream press
    • The need for specialize reporting on the are
  • Cultural Journalism
    • An introduction to the developments and current trends in:
      • Visual arts
      • Dance
      • Drama
      • Music
  • Magazines for women
    • Writing for women’s magazines. A diverse market
    • The difference between ‘serious’ and other women’s magazines
    • Manushi case study
    • What mainstream ‘women’s magazines’ cover and their projection of women

3. BROADCAST AND JOURNALISM

  • History of the development of radio journalism; BBC as a case study; radio boom to current decline; current developments with FM and independent radio channels; the underdevelopment if radio with the coming of TV
  • The potential of radio as a broadcast medium internationally and nationally; examining radio audiences in the region (AIR’s reach and popularity) and in the nation.
  • Radio and news formats-the spot, the report, feature, documentary, docudrama, talk show, interview
  • Writing for the radio
  • Skills of speaking over the radio as a reporter, presenter, interviewing, narration, conversation; Outside broadcasts and radio conferencing
  • Principles of sound and production techniques in radio journalism
  • History and development of TV journalism internationally and in India
  • TV journalism-local, regional national and international; exploring the potential of the local cable news network; studying CNN as a case study.
  • TV news in regional languages- reach, popularity, special coverage
  • TV journalism formats; evolution and popularity of new forms in TV; the long feature or documentary, the panel discussion and its functions, the news talk show.
  • Scripting news for TV
  • Principles of video camera use
  • Skills of anchoring or presenting- voicing and delivery, on camera delivery
  • Videotape editing
  • Examining Broadcast journalism and allegations of ‘dumping down’ of news as a whole; impact on print journalism
  • Understanding the power of the image and therefore the ethical considerations of broadcast coverage in times of conflict and disaster stories

4. NEWS MEDIA MANAGEMENT

  • News media as a business enterprise
    • Types of ownership
    • Proprietary concerns
  • Organizational structure
    • Hierarchy
    • Decision making
    • Inter-relationship between departments
  • Financial Management
    • Cost and profitability
      • Costing classification and allocation
      • Nature of cost
      • Factors affecting cost
      • Fixed and variable costs
    • Financial statement analysis
      • P/L,A/s, B/s (vertical analysis)
  • Resource and supply chain
    • Newsprint
    • Technology
    • Production process
  • Managing resource
    • Advertising revenue building and maintenance
    • Circulation revenue
    • Ways to cut cost and boost revenue
  • Marking techniques
    • Brand building
    • Public relations
      • Newspaper’s relation to its community
      • Understanding the target audience
      • Building goodwill
      • Promoting the newspaper’s/site’s services
      • Sales promotional activities
    • Role of research and readership surveys
    • Sales of forecasting and planning
    • Advertising the newspaper/website/channel
  • Human Resource Development
  • Newspaper management and challenges of liberalization
    • FDI
    • Foreign media entry
  • Legal aspects of launching a publication/ site/ channel
    • Press and registration of books act
    • Relevant aspects of company law
  • Case studies of successful news media- their proprietors, organizational structure, factors for success

5. INTERNET AND ISSUES IN THE GLOBAL MEDIA

  • Global journalism
    • Agents of global journalism – internet, international news agencies, international broadcasting
  • Internet journalism
    • Journalism in ‘real time’
    • Interactivity
    • Global problem of global audiences
    • Democrasting communication vertical to horizontal communication
  • Reporting and editing for the net
    • Difference between newspaper writing and writing for the net
    • Brevity and providing appropriate links
    • Special interest writing on the net
  • Developing your own website
    • Target audience
    • Content and services developing
  • Internet design
  • Issues of authenticity, propaganda and regressive communication on the net; lack/failure of regulatory laws
  • Access to primary documents of government and international agencies; global platform for activist groups
  • International news flow
    • The global news agencies
    • Growing global monopolies and their impact on news
    • NWICO, Mac Bridge report
    • Non-aligned news agencies and their downfall
  • Politics of representation of the ‘third world’ in international press
    • Political or ideological bias
    • Cultural bias
  • International reporting
  • Reporting international politics, international relations
    • International conflict Bosnia
    • Disasters
    • Poverty Ethiopian Famine
    • Reporting national events internationally
  • Challenges to international journalism
    • Problems of ‘parachute journalism’
    • The need for depth research
    • Operating in hostile conditions
  • International law and the role of western media in defining human rights, and rethinking the concepts of human rights from a third world media perspective
  • Asian region and the need for greater connectivity
    • Focus on agencies in Asia
    • Case study of Japan which has the greatest rate of news diffusion world wide
    • China and state control of news
    • India – mixed pattern

6. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

  • Environmental issues
    • World without borders
    • Global warming, economic and environmental impact
    • Resource use and sustainability
    • Environmental degradation, ozone depletion, pollution, deforestation
  • Universal human Rights- Universal Declaration(1949);Declaration of the right to development(1986);Examining the concept of ‘universal’ human rights and the individual context
  • Self-determination- Issues of secession; issues of state and anti state violence
  • Population, consumption and sustainability
  • Emancipatory movements
    • Trade union
    • Peasants movements (with global vision)
    • Environmental movements Chipko; Rachel Carson’s silent spirit; `72-UN summit on environment
    • Women’s movement
    • Homosexual rights
    • The development debate, anti large dam movements, rehabilitation, development choices, people’s involvement
    • Tribal movements
  • State of Polity
    • Decline of law
    • Corruption
    • Nexus between crime and politics
    • Political apathy
    • Authoritarianism by democratic governments
  • Positive discriminations and reservations
  • Communalism
  • Issues of accountability
    • Corporate Bhopal gas tragedy
    • Government accountability
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