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BMM Syllabus – Semester 6 (Journalism)

Posted on 23 January 2013 by BMMBoxer

Paper-I — PRESS LAW AND ETHICS

Marks: 100 (Theory:60, Internals: 40)

Topic of lectures

  • Law
  • Introduction to Laws
  • Classification of Laws
  • Copyright Act and Intellectual property Rights
  • Official Secrets Act
  • Press Council of India act 1978
  • Contempt of courts Act, 1971
  • Other Laws aimed at curbing press freedom
  • Introduction of The Indian Evidence Act 1872
  • Ethics
  • Advertiser and Ownership influence and interference etc.

Paper-II — BROADCAST JOURNALISM

Marks: 100 (Theory:60, Internals: 40)

Objectives:

  • ¾ To understand the development of broadcast journalism in India
  • ¾ Lean skills and techniques required for broadcast journalism
  • ¾ To learn how to handle equipment- a camcorder and recorder – for a story
  • ¾ Regional language broadcast journalism to be examinaed as a growing and flourishing field

Topic of lectures

  • History of the development of radio journalism
  • The potential of radio as a broadcast medium
  • Radio news formats
  • Writing news for radio
  • Skills of speaking over the radio
  • Principles of sound and production techniques
  • History of the development of TV Journalism
  • TV journalism – local , regional, national and international
  • TV news in the regional languages
  • TV journalism formats ; evolution and popularity of new forms on TB
  • Scripting news for TV
  • Principles of video camera use
  • Skills of anchoring or presenting
  • Videotape editing
  • Examining Broadcast journalism and allegations of ‘dumbing down’ of news
  • Understanding the power of the image


Paper-III — BUSINESS AND MAGAZINE JOURNALISM (COMBINATION OF NICHE I AND II)

Marks: 100 (Theory:60, Internals: 40)

Topic of lectures

  • Brief history
  • The structure of financial management
  • The Budget preparation and presentation
  • Companies, balance sheets, AGMs window dressing of balance sheets, the loopholes
  • Stock exchange, Sensex and its ups and downs
  • Ethics for business journalism
  • Magazine journalism
  • Magazines during post emergency
  • Western craze among glossy women’s magazines
  • Writing and editing for magazines
  • Role of Alternative media to deal with people’s issues.

Paper-IV — INTERNET AND ISSUES IN THE GLOBAL MEDIA

Marks: 100 (Theory:60, Internals: 40)

Objectives:

  • ¾ Examine global journalism as a newly emerging reality – it’s implications, strengths and weakness
  • ¾ To examine the journalistic scene in S.Asia
  • ¾ Learning about the Internet as a news medium
  • ¾ Equipping students with basic skills required for internet reporting and editing

Topic of lectures

  • Global journalism
  • Internet journalism
  • Reporting and editing for the net
  • Developing your own web site
  • Internet design
  • News Agencies
  • International news flow
  • Politics of representation of the ‘third world’ in international press
  • International reporting
  • Reporting International politics
  • Challenges to international journalism
  • International law and the role of Western media in defining human rights, and thinking the concept of human rights from a Third World media perspective
  • Asian region and the need for greater connectivity

Paper-V — NEWS MEDIA MANAGEMENT

Marks: 100 (Theory:60, Internals: 40)

Objectives:

  • ¾ To make students aware of the structure, functioning and responsibilities of managements of  media orgainsations
  • ¾ To create awareness of laws governing media orgainsations and their complexities in a globalised world in the wake of an information explosion.

Topic of lectures

  • Types of ownership and their agendas
  • Ideal management structure
  • Management role in ensuring editorial freedom.
  • Organisational structure
  • Financial management
  • Specialized training for skilled workers
  • Marshalling resources
  • Marketing strategies
  • Challenges of globalization, liberalization
  • Legal aspects

Paper-VI — CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

Max. Marks: 100 (Theory:60, Internals: 40)

Objectives:

  • ¾ To sensitize students to the environment around them
  • ¾ Developing a perspective towards issues related to the marginalized sections of the society

Topic of lectures

  • Ecological system, services and Economics of Environmental Protection
  • Concepts of human rights and civil liberties
  • Regional issues – Economics, Social, Political
  • Sugar Lobby, operation Flood, Terrorism, tribal Movement, etc.
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BMM Syllabus – Semester 5 (Journalism)

Posted on 23 January 2013 by BMMBoxer

Paper-I — REPORTING

Marks: 100 (Theory:60, Internals: 40)

Objectives:

  • ¾ Certain basic principles: Accuracy, Objectivity, Clarity and speed
  • ¾ The need to verify news. On the spot coverage, checking with the sources, double checking for controversial stories
  • ¾ Understanding New Values

Topic of lectures

  • Writing reports
  • Leads and its types
  • Gathering news
  • New news writing style
  • Investigative Reporting

Paper-II — EDITING

Marks: 100 (Theory:60, Internals: 40)

Objectives:

  • ¾ To allow improvement in language skills
  • ¾ To impart skills required of a sub-editor

Topic of lectures

  • Specific language inputs
  • Structure and functions of the editorial set-up of a newspaper
  • Functions of the sub-editor – Writing, editing, design
  • Editing
  • Typography and design
  • Editing on the computer.

Paper-III — FEATURE AND OPINION

Marks: 100 (Theory:60, Internals: 40)

Objectives:

  • ¾ Commenting on differences between reporting and  feature writhing, the special skills needed for feature / Opinion writing
  • ¾ Role of opinion writing the need for mature thinking and professional experience

Topic of lectures

  • ‘Hard’ news, ‘soft’ news, definitions and differences
  • ‘Report’ and ‘features’
  • The non-news feature
  • Special types of features
  • Obits a brief history
  • Reviews
  • Columns
  • Trend stories
  • The Editorial page and op-ed page
  • Editorial writing, special skills and analytical power
  • Some famous editors in Indian journalism.

Paper-IV — JOURNALISM AND PUBLIC OPINION

Marks: 100 (Theory:60, Internals: 40)

Objectives:

  • ¾ To examine critically the relationship between the media and public, how much does the media influence public opinion Which are  the agencies manipulating this process of influencing public opinion

Topic of lectures

  • What is public opinion? Who constitutes the public?
  • Which are the tools used to gauge public opinion? How reliable are they?
  • Examining the process where the media is said to have a role in influencing
  • public opinion? How far is this true? Examine the diversities and prejudices in the media,  Issues as discussed by opinion makers like Walter Lippman, Noam Chomsky and Lasarsfeld
  • Agenda setting v/s Uses and Gratifications model
  • The increased use of comment in reporting
  • Provocative editorials and news analysis
  • Political opinion as formed by the media
  • Role of media in times of war
  • Vietnam and Iraq Wars, Bangladesh liberation, etc.
  • Internal Conflicts and media reactions to these State terrorism, is media too much in sympathy with the views of human rights experts as
  • Covering communal riots, ethnic problems,
  • Shaping Trends how does media react to changing times
  • The CNN effect impact.

Paper-V — INDIAN REGIONAL JOURNALISM

Marks: 100 (Theory:60, Internals: 40)

Objectives:

  • ¾ Study the evolution, growth and role in modern-day India of Indian newspapers other than in
  • English
  • ¾ Case studies of Hindi, Marathi, Telugu and Urdu newpapers
  • ¾ Role of language papers in fostering socio – cultural development in their areas of circulation
  • ¾ Study intimacy between readers and language newspapers

Topic of lectures

  • Overview of impact of important newspapers
  • Use of common facilities like news pool, personnel, etc.
  • History and development of newspapers
  • How Indian language newspapers have shaped outlook and cultural identities.
  • Rise of ‘Hindi’ newspapers
  • The language press and local politics
  • Growth of regional newspapers
  • Tendency to hunt for higher profits
  • Political role of newspapers before and after Independence
  • Role of editors in upholding standards of journalism
  • Study the role of Editor- campaigners
  • Era of mass circulated regional newspapers

Paper-VI — NEWSPAPER – MAGAZINE MAKING (Project Paper)

Marks: 100

Objectives:

  • ¾ This paper shall introduce the students to the art of newspaper and magazine design and will orient them towards the practical aspects of newspaper – magazine making.

Topic of lectures

  • Graphic Communication – Past and Present
  • Why and how we read
  • Graphic Reproduction Processes and Presses
  • Type and Typesetting
  • Using Type Creatively
  • Electronic Copy Processing Systems
  • Preparation for Printing
  • Principles of Magazine Layout
  • Newspaper Design and Layout
  • Internal Assessment :  Individual Project
  • Four page Local Newspaper- A3 size- Tabloid Four Page National Newspaper- Broadsheet
  • Thirty-two page Magazine- A4 size.
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Tips on Editing An Article

Posted on 28 June 2012 by Karima Khan

This article is for all those who want to be writers as it aims to help you understand how you can edit an article and make it crisp and worth reading.
Here are some editing rules that you need to keep in mind:
Rule #1:
Collect all the information you need to write about the topic and jot it all down on paper.
Also, make sure you are in a silent environment. Ideally, it should be you, your paper, your pen and your head bursting with ideas.

Rule #2:

After you’re done brainstorming and writing down your initial ideas, align them in a particular order; the order being: Head, Body and Conclusion.
Every great article has a catchy beginning, a comprehensive middle and a satisfying conclusion. Your reader mustn’t feel that there was ‘something missing’ in the article.

Rule #3:
Now you must edit your article. Cut out all that you think is unimportant. Stay within the prescribed word limit. Make sure the content is crisp, to the point and relevant. Do not stray from the topic.

Rule #4:
Do not use short forms unless necessary. If you do use them, make sure you specify what the abbreviation stands for.
Example, IPL (Indian Premier League), APMC Market, Vashi (Agricultural Produce Market Committee)

Rule #5:
Don’t use short messaging service (SMS) language. Writing stuff like ‘Lyk, IDK!, LOL, FYI, DYN’ is unacceptable. Use of the words ‘like’, ‘I mean’, ‘etc’, ‘whatever’, ‘as if’ should be kept to a minimum.

Rule #6:
Learn the usage of Terminal Marks [ ! ? . ] and Secondary Bound Marks [ : ; , – ]

  1. An exclamation question like, ‘Harry! Are you alright?!’ will always have the use of ‘?’ followed by ‘!’ and not vice-versa. However, such usage is considered informal.
  2. ‘:’ is used to introduce a list of extract or quotation that follows an introductory sentence, or to denote hours and minutes, etc.
  3. ‘;’ is used to separate two independent thoughts in a sentence lessening the use of conjunctions.

Rule #7:
You can always fill make use of quotes and examples that will make your article interesting and keep your reader hooked.

Rule #8:
Re-read your article multiple times to ensure that you haven’t made any mistakes.

Rule #9:
For honing your writing skills, read newspapers, magazines and internet articles.
In fact, don’t just read but learn from them – the words they use, the flow of the story, the separation between paragraphs etc.

Rule #10:
Enjoy the process!

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Here’s why you should pursue a career in TV Journalism

Posted on 18 June 2012 by Khushboo Motihar

Before I begin to tell you what TV Journalism is all about, let me tell you why should you take up Journalism in the first place.

“Journalism can never be silent; it must speak and speak immediately while the echoes of wonder, the claims of triumphs and signs of horror are still in the air.”

Journalism today can easily be equated with power: the power of gaining and spreading knowledge, the power to shape public opinion, the power to stir people into action, the power to experience the wonderful sights and sounds of the world and sometimes to witness scenes of utter devastation. With such power comes responsibility; the responsibility to ensure that the Truth Always Triumphs. And this is what journalism asks of all journalists: responsible use of the power they have.

TV journalism is a highly adventurous field which is as full of thrills as it is full of thorns. Just imagine this: You are covering an India-Pak match. You get the best possible view, you get to live the jubilation of the winning team, you get to feel the pulse of the maddening crowd and you get to interview first-hand all the famous cricketers whom you have seen on TV up until now.

While every journalist would love to cover such happy events, there are times when he is compelled to cover incidents like 26/11. It is these events which test a journalist as he is required to keep his angst aside and calmly present an unbiased report.

That’s how unpredictable, demanding and challenging the world of Television Journalism is and it is this volatility which makes it so exciting.

Being a TV journalist requires you to think objectively with clinical precision and not let your emotions get the better of you. It expects you to be a quick thinker and be on your feet 24×7, because who knows when and where the next breaking news will crop up?! TV journalism is a field that allows you to see the world through a microscope, to get to the depth of things and unearth all the details. It also gives one the opportunity to travel and interview dignitaries. One day you will be in a remote village in Assam to interview the local do-good panchayat and the other day you will be probably flown into Miami to cover a major happening/event.

But I am getting ahead of myself. Remember that you will start small and will be expected to do ‘boring’ routines in your first year at work. Your hunger to move ahead and learn is what will help you climb the ladder and grow as a TV journalist. The money will come and so will the recognition, but all of this won’t be possible without sheer hard work, dedication, and continued focus. You must know that you will lead a fast-paced life; you will have to report on-the-spot with no script in hand, report without giving personal opinion and sound interesting too.

T.V. journalism is a world of glamour and of cut throat competition, a world where one report can make you a star and the other a loser. So those who are always looking for an adrenaline rush and who want to be in the thick of things, I must tell you that TV journalism is the right choice for you.

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Media & Censorship: Do the two go together?

Posted on 18 March 2012 by Sharal Barboza

Research has revealed that the media is responsible for influencing a major part of our daily life. Media has the power to call for a change in the attitudes and beliefs of the common man. The persuasive nature of the content presented in the media influences the thoughts and behavioural pattern of the general public. Therefore, it wouldn’t be wrong to say that media has a direct impact on the lifestyle and nature of society.

While most countries have gifted their citizens the freedom of speech and expression, some countries try to counter the abuse of this right by a select few by restricting the way in which this speech and expression are received. Basically, while you’re allowed to say anything you want and do whatever your heart desires (as long as it is within the legal framework), you may not be free to listen or to appreciate someone else’s speech or action (one that is deemed to be volatile or anti-social by a government body or the society). This is the whole crux of censorship; censoring or banning content (and its reception) that is deemed volatile, harmful to society and counter-productive.

But who decides what is volatile, counter-productive or harmful to national security/society? How is content to be classified as worthy of censoring or not?

It is governmental bodies and unwritten-yet-widely-followed-societal-norms that decide what needs to be censored or not. For example, most countries call for complete censorship of pornographic material. If aired on TV, or available on other easily accessible forms of media, this form of content can corrupt children and create havoc in the society. Similarly, violence and violent content, content that can hurt religious sentiments too demand complete censorship.

Also, the amount of censorship or the cut-off level which defines what to show and what not to show differs from country to country. One of the most common ways of media censorship is by enforcing age-limits. This means that people below a certain pre-determined age cannot view or be exposed to a certain form on content.

However, it is not so simple and easy to define what can be censored and when and how. Many burning questions demand immediate answers. How much freedom is good? What needs to censored and why? What’s the point of your right to speak if there is no one to listen to what you are saying? Doesn’t the very concept of censorship clash with the idea of democracy? If we allow censorhip, then what is the difference between democracy and dictatorship?

We all know and agree that media has brought about a major transformation in the way the masses think. Media has given them an excellent platform to present themselves before the world and to contribute in their own way to the changing world scenario. It is responsible for shrinking the world further.I think, media censorship is all about degree; about how much to show and how much to hide. I’d like to end by saying that if used properly, censorship serves as a valuable tool; if not then our right to creative freedom is at stake.

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Semester 6

Posted on 28 January 2010 by BMMBoxer

T.Y.B.M.M. JOURNALISM semester VI

1. PRESS LAWS AND ETHICS

  • Introduction to Law
    • Constitutional law
    • Statutory law
    • Judgment law
    • Substantial and adjectival law
  • The Press as the forth estate
  • The role of law in regulating journalism-the debate of a libertarian and socially responsible press.
  • Need for an autonomous regulatory body
    • Press Council of India – the rationale and vision behind the establishment of the PCI
    • Its structure, functions, history
    • Powers – the debate over punitive powers
    • Dual role in ensuring freedom of the press and regulating it
    • PCI code of conduct for journalists
    • Major cases handled by the PCI
    • Pertinent research reports of the PCI for example on monopoly etc.
  • Laws related to freedom of the Press – 19 (1) (a), ‘reasonable restrictions’ 19 (2) and other constraints:
    • Defamation
    • Public order
    • Contempt of court
    • Contempt of parliament
    • Sedition
    • Obscenity, indecent representation of women act
  • Laws related to information access
    • Right to information
    • Examining the right to know vs. the right to privacy
  • Censorship-the Press during the Emergency and Publication of Objectionable Matters Act.
  • Indirect means of censorship Press and Page Act; targeting the Press through the tax laws and other laws, Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act.
  • Official Secrets Act
  • Indian Evidence Act – real, oral, documentary, primary and secondary evidence
  • Confidentiality of sources – the absence of a shield law in India; discussion of the American law
  • Laws related to journalism as a business
    • Working journalists act
    • Press and registration of books act
  • Copyright
  • Ethics
    • Examining the differences between ethics, morals and code of conduct
    • Institutional PR ethics; practitioner and personal ethics
    • Search for standards – guiding principles, situational ethics
  • Issue of balance on reporting Crime, Disasters, Conflict, – communal riots or other violence
  • Advertiser influence
  • Objectivity
  • Conflict of interest
  • Ownership
  • Frankery and fabricating news
  • Deception, misrepresentation
  • Using shock value in visuals and language
  • Seduction-Freebies, perks, travel and stay accommodations
  • Ethics in Investigative Journalism
    • Checkbook journalism
    • Confidentiality of sources
    • Issues of consent, using ‘off the record’ material
    • Repercussions of the story on sources’ lives and on the publication itself

2. NICHE JOURNALISM

  • Financial Journalism
    • Basic knowledge of the finance system in India; gathering, distribution and allocation of revenue vis-à-vis the central and state governments; finance and planning commission
    • Central and state budgets; budget-making exercise, how to read a budget, concept of zero-budget, importance of public accounts committee
    • Introduction to tax laws, FERA, Industrial Relations Acts, Companies act
    • Sources of news of business, finance and industry governments, chambers of commerce and industries, corporate, trading and industrial executives, share markets, commodities markets, money market
    • Analysis of decisions, company reports and statements, AGMs
    • Satellite network and new trends in business journalism; new information technology; commercial database, ethics in business reporting, business journalism, servant or watchdog; concept of social audit
    • Introduction to major industries, electronics heavy engineering, chemical, steel, cement, power, bio-technology, agro-industries, service and agriculture; their role in the economy
    • Covering stock markets, commodity markets, company meetings, industrial production, exports, imports, financial companies, foreign capital investment, investigating the innumerable tie-up agreements with foreign countries, poor infrastructure development bureaucracy and business tie ups
  • Environment
    • Print and broadcast media dealing with the issue
    • How environment is covered in the mainstream press
    • The need for specialize reporting on the are
  • Cultural Journalism
    • An introduction to the developments and current trends in:
      • Visual arts
      • Dance
      • Drama
      • Music
  • Magazines for women
    • Writing for women’s magazines. A diverse market
    • The difference between ‘serious’ and other women’s magazines
    • Manushi case study
    • What mainstream ‘women’s magazines’ cover and their projection of women

3. BROADCAST AND JOURNALISM

  • History of the development of radio journalism; BBC as a case study; radio boom to current decline; current developments with FM and independent radio channels; the underdevelopment if radio with the coming of TV
  • The potential of radio as a broadcast medium internationally and nationally; examining radio audiences in the region (AIR’s reach and popularity) and in the nation.
  • Radio and news formats-the spot, the report, feature, documentary, docudrama, talk show, interview
  • Writing for the radio
  • Skills of speaking over the radio as a reporter, presenter, interviewing, narration, conversation; Outside broadcasts and radio conferencing
  • Principles of sound and production techniques in radio journalism
  • History and development of TV journalism internationally and in India
  • TV journalism-local, regional national and international; exploring the potential of the local cable news network; studying CNN as a case study.
  • TV news in regional languages- reach, popularity, special coverage
  • TV journalism formats; evolution and popularity of new forms in TV; the long feature or documentary, the panel discussion and its functions, the news talk show.
  • Scripting news for TV
  • Principles of video camera use
  • Skills of anchoring or presenting- voicing and delivery, on camera delivery
  • Videotape editing
  • Examining Broadcast journalism and allegations of ‘dumping down’ of news as a whole; impact on print journalism
  • Understanding the power of the image and therefore the ethical considerations of broadcast coverage in times of conflict and disaster stories

4. NEWS MEDIA MANAGEMENT

  • News media as a business enterprise
    • Types of ownership
    • Proprietary concerns
  • Organizational structure
    • Hierarchy
    • Decision making
    • Inter-relationship between departments
  • Financial Management
    • Cost and profitability
      • Costing classification and allocation
      • Nature of cost
      • Factors affecting cost
      • Fixed and variable costs
    • Financial statement analysis
      • P/L,A/s, B/s (vertical analysis)
  • Resource and supply chain
    • Newsprint
    • Technology
    • Production process
  • Managing resource
    • Advertising revenue building and maintenance
    • Circulation revenue
    • Ways to cut cost and boost revenue
  • Marking techniques
    • Brand building
    • Public relations
      • Newspaper’s relation to its community
      • Understanding the target audience
      • Building goodwill
      • Promoting the newspaper’s/site’s services
      • Sales promotional activities
    • Role of research and readership surveys
    • Sales of forecasting and planning
    • Advertising the newspaper/website/channel
  • Human Resource Development
  • Newspaper management and challenges of liberalization
    • FDI
    • Foreign media entry
  • Legal aspects of launching a publication/ site/ channel
    • Press and registration of books act
    • Relevant aspects of company law
  • Case studies of successful news media- their proprietors, organizational structure, factors for success

5. INTERNET AND ISSUES IN THE GLOBAL MEDIA

  • Global journalism
    • Agents of global journalism – internet, international news agencies, international broadcasting
  • Internet journalism
    • Journalism in ‘real time’
    • Interactivity
    • Global problem of global audiences
    • Democrasting communication vertical to horizontal communication
  • Reporting and editing for the net
    • Difference between newspaper writing and writing for the net
    • Brevity and providing appropriate links
    • Special interest writing on the net
  • Developing your own website
    • Target audience
    • Content and services developing
  • Internet design
  • Issues of authenticity, propaganda and regressive communication on the net; lack/failure of regulatory laws
  • Access to primary documents of government and international agencies; global platform for activist groups
  • International news flow
    • The global news agencies
    • Growing global monopolies and their impact on news
    • NWICO, Mac Bridge report
    • Non-aligned news agencies and their downfall
  • Politics of representation of the ‘third world’ in international press
    • Political or ideological bias
    • Cultural bias
  • International reporting
  • Reporting international politics, international relations
    • International conflict Bosnia
    • Disasters
    • Poverty Ethiopian Famine
    • Reporting national events internationally
  • Challenges to international journalism
    • Problems of ‘parachute journalism’
    • The need for depth research
    • Operating in hostile conditions
  • International law and the role of western media in defining human rights, and rethinking the concepts of human rights from a third world media perspective
  • Asian region and the need for greater connectivity
    • Focus on agencies in Asia
    • Case study of Japan which has the greatest rate of news diffusion world wide
    • China and state control of news
    • India – mixed pattern

6. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

  • Environmental issues
    • World without borders
    • Global warming, economic and environmental impact
    • Resource use and sustainability
    • Environmental degradation, ozone depletion, pollution, deforestation
  • Universal human Rights- Universal Declaration(1949);Declaration of the right to development(1986);Examining the concept of ‘universal’ human rights and the individual context
  • Self-determination- Issues of secession; issues of state and anti state violence
  • Population, consumption and sustainability
  • Emancipatory movements
    • Trade union
    • Peasants movements (with global vision)
    • Environmental movements Chipko; Rachel Carson’s silent spirit; `72-UN summit on environment
    • Women’s movement
    • Homosexual rights
    • The development debate, anti large dam movements, rehabilitation, development choices, people’s involvement
    • Tribal movements
  • State of Polity
    • Decline of law
    • Corruption
    • Nexus between crime and politics
    • Political apathy
    • Authoritarianism by democratic governments
  • Positive discriminations and reservations
  • Communalism
  • Issues of accountability
    • Corporate Bhopal gas tragedy
    • Government accountability
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