In common parlance, news is what is new. News is what everyone wants to know about. A newspaper office’s main concern is to gather news and report news-local, state, regional, national, and international. The basic understanding about news is essential for any editorial work in a newspaper, news agency and news magazine.
Definition of news:
There are several definitions of news. News may be defined as anything timely that interests a large number of people and the best news is that which has the greatest interest in greatest number of persons. In other words, news is the timely report of events, facts and opinions and interests a significant number of persons. News is a piece of information about significant and recent events that affect the audience and is of great interest to them.
By the above definitions one can understand the basic essence of news but not a concrete definition. This is because news is an abstract concept whose shape changes as the interests of humans change. (Reporting and Writing News, 1983). News is relative in nature. It changes with the changes in other factors related to it
News depends on factors like-
1. Size of the community (readers/viewers).
2. The periodicity of the publication (weekly, monthly etc).
3. The social character and economic base of the community.
4. The focus of attention or emphasis of the community.
John B. Bogart, city editor of New York, SUN defines news like this,” when a dog bites a man it’s not news but when a man bites a dog it is news.” He pointed out very correctly that unusual events fall under the purview of news.
The salient features of news are:
1. Perishable- when the event is understood and the tension is eased off, then news gets less informative and becomes history.
2. News is of interest to large number of people.
3. News is unusual events and happenings.
4. News is new to people.
Hard news and Soft news:
Hard news is mostly event centric. It is the narration of an event. Hard news items are centered on “who , what, when, why, when and how.” It does not dig beneath the upper crust of the layer. It is informative but does not lead to interpretations. Major thrust of the newspaper is hard news.
Soft news on the other hand is becoming a very important segment of newspapers. Mere reporting of events does not satisfy the readers. They would like to enter beneath the upper crust of the hard news. They want reasons, backgrounders, interpretations, & analysis. This is called soft news.
Ingredients of news:
1. Timeliness: news must be timely and new. It will not arouse interest if it is already known, or brought to notice long after its occurrence.
2. Nearness and proximity: people are more interested in what happens under their nose in their village, city, country rather than some distant land. Similarly they are more interested in what has direct impact on them. E.g. the news that the price of rise may rise will make them sit up more than a report that the govt subsidy on fertilizers has been withdrawn.
3. Conflict: people gather in a street when there is a fight or a conflict. Conflicts of all kinds make a good story.
4. Prominence: what happens to important people makes news. The value of news increases with the prominence of the person/persons involved. former Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi s assassination made world headlines but a murder of the village panchayat head will not arouse interest in people living in the city and will be carried only in the local newspaper.
5. Government action plan: the passing of a new law or other orders concerning general public, cabinet meetings, parliament and assembly sessions, notification about rules and regulations are news worthy.
6. Development projects and issues: this is not news about government action activities, though sometimes it will also qualify to be covered. The invention of high yield variety rice and its success in changing the life style is of interest to people.
7. Human interest stories: people are interested in knowing what s happening to other people and about their lives. If a woman gives birth to quadruplets in a village, the story will interest everybody. In addition, oddities, humour, tragedy, triumph over handicap, motivational stories, bravery etc all make good human interest story.
8. Weather and sports: both weather and sports generate a lot of interest in people and thus make important stories. Arrival of monsoons or cyclones is a front page story. An entire page or two is dedicated to sports.
9. Follow up: the news items become very interesting for people when followed up and updated timely. It is important to remember that follow up stories keep the reader s interest alive in the issue.
Fundamental qualities of news:
1. Accuracy: accuracy is basic to any news item. When one fails in accuracy, he/she loses credibility. Cross checking all facts and figures is important. Check figures, names and facts. People usually get offended by misspelled names. If one is paraphrasing a speech from a text given, He/she should make sure to not change the meaning or quote statements out of context. Exclude rumour and gossip from the report. The reporting should be truthful.
2. Balance: to be balanced in reporting is as important as being accurate. If one is writing about a controversy then he/she should make sure he is not biased. Give both sides of the story. While reporting a strike, for instance, give claim of the authorities and the workers on how far it is successful. A story may appear imbalanced and thus biased if much importance is given to the government’s point of view or the worker’s.
3. Objectivity: One should not mix your opinion in the story. Report only facts. One should be a disinterested observer, reporting an event without taking sides.
4. Clarity: A story maybe best in verbiage. The introductory statement should be brief and simple. It should be relevant to the topic and should be in active voice to the maximum extent possible. The ideal length of the paragraph should be about 4-5 lines containing small sentences to facilitate easy understanding. The news report should be written in the inverted pyramid style.
5. Impact: whenever one does news report, consider the impact the story will create: Will it induce some changes for the better or will it incite people negatively?